I wrote this to explain some things that are often invisible to people who don’t publish in peer-reviewed journals as corresponding authors. My primary purpose for putting up this post is to share that even in the current, imperfect system, there are things that anyone can do to more easily access paywalled papers. Scroll down if you don’t want the preamble.
First some facts:
The $35 for a journal article goes to the publisher, not the author
Publishing is a very lucrative business. The profits go to publishers, not academics, though academics arguably also benefit to some extent. Because publication is a job requirement, when we publish, we are able to get and keep jobs.
Offering a paper as open access typically costs an academic around USD$2500-3000
Article processing fees in the journals in which I publish range from about $800 to $6000 but $2500-3000 is a pretty typical amount. I allocate for these in my grant budgets but sometimes the rules put limits on how much I can allocate to article processing fees, an article may come from an unfunded project, or I may have other uses for those funds that are more important at the time; e.g., paying to do more research or providing funding to a graduate student. Funds are not unlimited. When you demand open access within the current model, what you are implying is that it is more important for you to be able to access the article in one click than it is for more research to be done that could help you or others. (Working to change the current model is good, though.)
Some funders will also pay the article processing fees for some or all articles, but there may be limits. An agency from which I hold funds will pay up to $3500 per project, which is great, except my project funded from that agency has produced 5 manuscripts so far. Many agencies also have policies that require papers to be deposited in an open access repository, but it may take up to a year for them to become available to the public.
Preprints are great but are not accepted in all fields nor by all journals [added 2018-07-10]
Some fields (for example, physics, mathematics, computer science, and economics) have a long tradition of preprints. A preprint is a version of a manuscript that has often not yet by peer-reviewed nor published. I love the preprint model and have used it (for example, I am lead author on this preprint) but preprints are not a full solution to the problem of paywalled articles, for two reasons. First, preprints have not yet been peer-reviewed. Peer review is not perfect and it will not catch all problems but it does help improve papers. This helps people who are not scientists in that field have some confidence that the conclusions of the paper are valid. This may be especially important for things like randomized controlled trials that can change clinical practice. Second, preprints are not accepted in all fields nor by all journals. This means that, in some fields, by putting a manuscript out as a preprint, you can no longer submit it to a large number of journals. I think this is terrible and I have personally made a point to talk to editors about allowing manuscripts that have been already disseminated as preprints, but right now this is just a reality of academic science.
I prefer the open access model and I try to publish open access whenever I can. Especially when all or part of research is publicly-funded, I think its results should be available to all members of the public, not just people with institutional access. I am increasingly taking advantage of methods to put my paywalled papers online. My institution now has a repository, so I am slowly figuring out which versions of which of my papers can be put there. Different publishers have slightly different rules, so this is not always as straightforward as I would like. Despite my efforts, I can’t always manage an open access article processing fee for every paper, nor can many other academics, so with that in mind, I offer:
HOW TO GET COPIES OF ARTICLES THAT DON’T GIVE YOU AN OPEN ACCESS OPTION ON THE FIRST CLICK
Editing to add two other options I’ve heard from multiple people. [Moved up 2018-07-07 to avoid mistakenly conveying these two methods are illegal when they are not. Thank you to Christy Caldwell for flagging this]
Also, @unpaywall @OA_Button.
— couragesings (@couragesings) December 13, 2017
1. Email the authors.
As an author, I am thrilled when people want to read my papers. I am allowed to send copies to you upon request and I will happily do so if you just email me to ask. You can usually find an author’s email by googling them or, if they are a health researcher, by searching their publications on PubMed and clicking to see the author information. It isn’t there for all papers so it might take a few tries, but it’s usually possible to find someone’s email this way.
To do this, click on the little plus symbol labeled author information under the title and authors of an article:
You’ll have the best shot if the person is the first or last author. This is because some journals require emails from every author; some only require it from the corresponding author.
(Fun fact: if you are new to publishing, the first time your email address gets put up here, it will start to get scraped and you will start getting academic spam inviting you to submit papers to predatory journals. I have strategies for filtering that spam.)
[edited to add 2018-07-06] Related to this, a tip from Twitter user @_impactandvalue: also ask if they will share any of their other work cited in the paper you’re requesting. This may save multiple emails.
2. Use your local library.
If you have a university, hospital, or public library in your community, you should be able to access at least some articles through them. Not every library has access to every article but they may be able to use interlibrary loan to get access. The more those services get used, the more likely it is that they will keep on existing.
If you spend time in a hospital, especially one affiliated to a medical school, ask if they have a librarian who handles patient inquiries. They may not only be able to get you copies of articles, but also help you find the most relevant articles for your situation.
3. Check google scholar for a pdf.
If you put the title of the paper into Google Scholar, you should find it. The right hand side of the search interface will sometimes show you if there is a pdf available. Under the title you may also see a link, “All ## versions.” If you click this, you will see different ways to access the article, which may include pdfs or open access html versions.
4. Other methods.
I do not advocate these methods, especially not as a first line approach. This is because they are not necessarily legal–though they may well be ethical–and perhaps more importantly, I think they take away from libraries at a time when libraries need all the support they can get. However, for people’s information, other ways to access articles include tweeting a request for an article with the hashtag #icanhazpdf (once someone sends you the pdf, it is good practice to delete your tweet) or the group of pirating sites SciHub.
This post is licensed under CC-BY-SA 2.0.
Some might read your “unpaywall” edit and think it’s not legal. But both unpaywall and the OA button are totally legit and something all researchers should know about. I have the unpaywall extension on my browser, and it’s so easy.
Thank you. This is helpful. Also consider Researchgate.net and Academia.edu for available full-text research papers.
Unfortunately, authors are often not that easy to contact. They are on ResearchGate, but don’t answer. The given correspondence email address is not working anymore after only three years. Or they take forever to answer – even my PhD supervisor sometimes didn’t answer my emails at all. Money gets scarce, so many of the libraries unsubscribe the journals. Through nationwide catalogs, you often can locate copies, but if you don’t know any people in that institution, or don’t want to ask time-consuming favors too much, or don’t want to travel through the whole country – or if you’re desperate to read a recent paper on, let’s say on the “Prevalence of gender expression in Germany” – you pay.
Hey, thanks for this! This is really useful information. Could you either license this with some CC license (https://creativecommons.org/choose/) or get back to me? I would love to turn this into a shared resource that others can update so it has the best information and stays up-to-date.
@Christy Caldwell: Excellent point. Thank you so much for flagging this! I have moved that note.
@Otto Khera: Yes, good point, this is often a way to find full text. I worry about their business models, though. Also, copyright transfer agreements often do not allow posting on these sites whereas they often do allow sharing individually.
@Norman A. Schmidt: Yes, this is sadly true. For some papers, getting access requires many attempts across different methods.
@Jonne Arjoranta: Oh sure! Will do.
My housemate is a veteran Kaiser surgical RN who has been doing an online nursing course through Aspen University. She has managed to get some paywalled articles with my help, but we rarely see an author’s actual email address listed. My housemate does not use Twitter, which seems to be the communication medium of choice. I haven’t had much luck finding email addresses through Google either… too many privacy concerns I suspect.
So it’s nice to know that you are happy to provide papers to the public, but obstacles persist nevertheless.
Thanks for your posts. My housemate [name redacted] would likely find you to be a valuable resource. She is originally from London Ontario. Her email address, if you would consider making contact, is [email redacted]
San Rafael, California
Thank you for taking the time to share this, Holly. And to those who commented and added more information.
This is incredibly helpful and insightful.
Public access is vital to keep us informed and not have pertinent knowledge deleted, filtered, edited, or ignored.
@Gary Fox: Your housemate should be able to get access through her university. (See point 2 in the post.) If not, when searching for email addresses, try using the person’s name + their institution. Both of these pieces of information are typically (not always, but typically) publicly displayed on the article, even when you can’t see full text. Best of luck to her in her studies!
This is excellent but how can I find out which authors have papers on a particular subject? I am looking for papers on Stay-at-home-dads and their impact on the family, the workplace and the economy. I am not in an academic setting so I have little knowledge or access to such information.
Thank you for this, Holly.
@Franz Noronha I would recommend consulting a librarian if you can. Your local library will hopefully have someone who can help, or at least direct you to a reference librarian. Otherwise, you may want to start with scholar.google.com. You may also want to try domain-specific resources like nber.org. Good luck!
There’s now a publicly editable version of this post on https://jaranta.github.io/getting-access-to-paywalled-articles/. The URL is not great; I’ll try to figure out a better one and maybe pay for a domain for a more permanent home. The page is also pretty rudimentary, but at least it works. If you have suggestions on improving the guide, you can find the instructions on the bottom of the page.
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Sci-Hub links often don’t work for me, but I found this post that someone keeps up to date with the latest links: https://citationsy.com/blog/download-research-papers-scientific-articles-free-sci-hub/
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